Uterus or Womb or Hysteria; it is an inverted pear shaped large distensible part of female reproductive system which is specialised for anchoring and nourshing the developing foetus.
Uterus is attached to pelvic wall by the means of ligaments.
It enlarges due to pregnancy. Wall of uterus is thick and muscular, it is differentiated on the account of muscular layers into 3 layers-
- internal glandular endometrium; undergoes cyclic changes
- middle muscular myometrium; exhibhits strong contraction during delivery of baby
- outer membranous perimetrium
Morphologically uterus is differentiated into three regions
- Fundus; it is a dome shaped region of the uterus which lies above the level of the entry of oviducts.
- Body; it is the main part of the uterus, it is broad towards the fundus and narrow down towards the cervix.
- Cervix; small narrow cylindrical inferior extremity of uterus, it communicates with internal os and external os towards vagina. The cavity between internal os and external os is called cervical canal.
After puberty it is the place to conduct menstrual cycle, and other major events of fertilisation to developing foetus.
Importantly, cervical canal along with vaginal canal forms birth canal.