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The upstream processing in biotechnology involves identifying and extracting the raw materials. This forms the initial process of fermentation.

The upstream processing deals with:

  1. Inoculum preparation which includes screening or microorganisms and selection of suitable strain and genetic modification of the organism if needed.
  2. Preparation of culture media having suitable growth parameters at laboratory scale
  3. Scale up of the entire process
  4. Inoculation

When the products are subjected to a series of processes including separation and purification which are collectively known as Downstream processing. It is also known as product recovery.

The downstream processing deals with:

  1. Solid-liquid separation
  2. Release of intracellular products
  3. Concentration
  4. Purification
  5. Formulation
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