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The applications of PCR technology in biotechnology are:

  1. Clinical diagnosis: PCR is a highly sensitive tool in the diagnosis of various diseases in human. The occurrence of genetic diseases can be identified by the length of Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Incase of genetic diseases, there is a mutation resulting in a detectable change in the length of the restriction fragment.
  2. It is also used in diagnosis of retroviral infection, bacterial infections, cancers, sex determination of embryos.
  3. Forensic science: PCR is very important for the identification of criminal. The DNA fingerprinting technique is used in forensic science. A single molecule of DNA ( stains of blood, semen, hair) is enough for amplification by PCR.
  4. Gene Therapy: PCR helps to monitor the gene in gene therapy
  5. Genomic studies: PCR helps to compare the genomes of two organisms and identify the difference between them.
  6. Evolutionary studies: It plays an important role in phylogenetic analysis. Minute quantities of DNA from any source such a fossilized material, hair, bones, mummified tissues can be amplified using PCR technique.
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