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ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate. It is a triphosphate ester of adenine ribonucleoside. The ATP molecule consists of three components: A 5-carbon pentose sugar called Ribose, a nitrogen containing purine base i.e. Adenine and three phosphate groups.

All organisms need energy for existence and maintenance of life. The cell which is the basic structural and functional unit of life performs various cellular and metabolic activities. All these activities need energy. Organisms can use only the biologically usable form of chemical energy which is the energy rich compound i.e. ATP.

The breakdown of ATP by hydrolysis provides energy due to breakage of phosphate bonds present in the ATP molecules. Thus, ATP molecules act as energy mediators or energy coins of the cell.

Similarly, ATP is formed from ADP and iP by utilizing energy provided through some cellular reactions such as phosphorylation.

 

Hydrolysis

 

ATP

――――――――――→

ADP + iP

 

7.3 Kcal

 

 

(Release of high energy)

 

 

 

Synthesis

 

ADP + iP

――――――――――→

ATP

 

7.3 Kcal

 

 

(Input of energy)

 

 

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