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Classification of synovial joints and their movements:

1. Ball and socket joint:

  • Movement:
    • Multi-axial movements.
    • Free movements in all directions as well as rotatory movements.
    • Flexion and extension; Abduction and adduction; Circumduction and rotation.
  • Examples:
    • Shoulder joint → Rotatory or circular movements (360o)
    • Hip joint → Straight movement

2. Hinge joint:

  • Movement:
    • Uniaxial movement (180o)
    • Movement in one plane and in one direction.
    • Movements similar to hinges of door and windows.
    • Flexion and extension
  • Examples:
    • Elbow joint
    • Knee joint

3. Pivot Joint:

  • Movement:
    • Uniaxial movement (Rotation only)
  • Examples:
    • Atlanto-axial joint (between first and second vertebrae)

4. Gliding joint:

  • Movement:
    • Non-axial movement (Irregular)
    • Limited movements
    • Gliding movements
  • Examples:
    • Inter-carpal joint
    • Inter-tarsal joint

5. Condyloid joint:

  • Movement:
    • Bi-axial movement (forward or backward and side-to-side)
    • Flexion and extension
    • Limited rotation
  • Examples:
    • Wrist joint → Between radius and carpal
    • Metacarpophalangeal joint

6. Saddle joint:

  • Movement:
    • Bi-axial movements
    • Free movements → lateral, upwards and downwards
    • Movements limited
    • Flexion and extension; Abduction and adduction; Conjunct rotation
  • Examples:
    • Carpal (Trapezium) and Metacarpal of thumb.
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