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Viruses are infectious, contagious and communicable. They are spread and enter the human body by the following modes of transmission:

  1. Faeco-oral route: This may be food-borne, water borne or through direct personal contact. Water or contaminated food by faeces is the common source. Poor sanitation, contaminated or dirty hands, overcrowding also favor the spread or viral infections
  2. Parenteral route: Transmission of blood and blood products or by skin penetrations through the use of contaminated syringes and needles.
  3. From infected mother: Virus is also transmitted from carrier mother to babies via blood, breast milk and during pregnancy.
  4. By Insect vectors
  5. By air- Through aerosols and droplets during sneezing, coughing
  6. Intimate sexual contact with the diseased person