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Germplasm refers to the hereditary material transmitted to the offspring through the germ cells. It is the total content of genes. It serves as the raw material for the breeder to develop different crops.

The main objective of germplasm collection is preservation of genetic diversity if a particular plant or genetic stock for its use in the future.

Benefits of germplasm collection:

  1. Cell and tissue cultures of many plant species can be cryopreserved and maintained in a viable state for several years and used when required. 

  2. Plant materials from endangered species can be conserved using this method.

  3. It is an ideal method for long term conservation of cell cultures producing secondary metabolites such as antibiotics.

  4. Recalcitrant seeds (seeds which loose their viability on storage) can be maintained for a long period of time

  5. Disease free plant materials can be frozen and propagated whenever required.

  6. Conservation of somaclonal variations in cultures

  7. Rare germplasms developed by using somatic hybridization and other genetic manipulation techniques can be stored

  8. Pollen conservation for enhancing longevity

  9. Germplasm banks to facilitate the exchange of information at international level.

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