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Features of the human genome

  1. Human genome is a set of genetic information which is stored in the DNA with in the chromosomes, in the cell nucleus.
  2. Human genome is located in nucleus as well as in mitochondria.
  3. The nuclear genome comprises 32,00,00,0000 nucleotides of DNA, which is divided in 24 linear molecules. These molecules are known as chromosomes which consist 22 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes, X and Y.
  4. The mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule having 16,569 nucleotides, located in the energy-generating organelles known as mitochondria.
  5. Totally the human genome comprises 3164.7 millions of nucleotide bases.
  6. Less than 2 percent of genome used for protein coding.
  7. In human genome repeated sequences of DNA make the larger portion of genome.
  8. Numbers of genes in different chromosomes are different. In chromosome 1 there are the highest numbers of genes (2968) whereas chromosome Y has the fewest (231).
  9. The human genome is divided into two sequences: coding and non-coding. Coding sequences used in translation process whereas non-coding sequences are not used for encoding the protein.
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