The major types of pigments found in plants are:
Carotenoids which include Carotenes and Xanthophylls
Chlorophyll a is the essential pigment involved in photosynthesis. It is responsible for the conversion of light energy to chemical energy. Only Chlorophyll a can utilize the light energy coming from the sun for the synthesis of chemical energy (ATP).
The other pigments act as accessory pigments. They collect the light energy coming from the sun and transfer it to Chlorophyll a for photosynthesis.