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The major organelles found in the cytosol and their roles are listed in the table given below:

No.

Name of cell organelle

Role

1.

Nucleus

Controls metabolic activities of the cell.

Controls cell division.

Transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offsprings.

2.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Intracellular transport

Acts as supporting framework for a cell

Synthesizes proteins and lipids and transports them.

Transports proteins synthesized by ribosomes.

3.

Golgi complex

Secretory organ of the cell.

Produces vacuoles and secretory cells.

Modifies,sorts and packs materials synthesized in the cell and transports them to various places inside or outside the cell.

Plays a key role in the formation of plasma membrane, cell wall and lysosomes.

4.

Lysosomes

Protects the cell by destroying any foreign material (eg. virus, bacteria) that enter the cell.

Also known as ‘Digestive system of the cell’.

Removes worn out cell organelles and cell debris by autolysis.

5.

Mitochondria

Produces ATP (energy rich compound of the cell)

Energy stored in ATP molecules is used to synthesize chemical compounds (e.g. proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc.) and perform mechanical functions ( e.g. movement of muscles, conduction of nerve impulses, etc.)

6.

Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

7.

Vacuoles

Maintain osmotic pressure of the cell.

Storage of metabolic byproducts and end products (e.g. proteins, water, etc.)

Storage of waste products and food in animal cell (e.g. amoeba)

 

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