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Rice cultivation is an important source of greenhouse gases for examples methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming. At present methane has the second largest radiative forcing (RF) effect after CO2.

N2O concentration can also be detrimental to the stratospheric ozone layer. Primarily the ineffective and wasteful application of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production supports the release of nitrous oxide as a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere.