Hypothalamus is located in the diencephalon, below the thalamus, and works as the masters of the endocrine system, as it regulates the pituitary. It directly links the endocrine system to the nervous system.
Neurons in the hypothalamus (neurosecretory cells) produce Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin hormones (posterior pituitary).
(a) Antidiuretic hormone promotes water retention by kidneys
(b) Oxytocin stimulates labor and induces ejection of milk from mammary glands.
Hypothalamus secretes several hormones that control the anterior pituitary gland (composed of epithelial tissue). In turn, anterior pituitary controls the secretions of the thyroid gland (one of the largest endocrine glands), adrenal cortex, and gonads.
Hypothalamus secretes Hypothalamic-inhibiting hormone and Hypothalamic-releasing hormone which pass from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
(a) Hypothalamic-inhibiting hormone - INHIBITS each anterior pituitary hormone.
(b) Hypothalamic-releasing hormone - STIMULATES each anterior pituitary hormone.