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HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH FEMALE REPRODUCTION

There are two different types of hormones that are responsible for female reproduction:

A. Steroid hormone

1. Estrogens: 18-carbon steroid hormone. Its functions are as follows:

  • Development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty.
  • Increase responsiveness to FSH
  • Promote the growth in ovarian follicles
  • Stimulates the production of receptors for FSH, LH and progesterone.
  • During pregnancy, it s responsible for the enormous growth of uterus and also it stimulates oxytocin receptors.

2. Progesterone: 21-carbon steroid hormone. It is the principle hormone of corpus luteum. Its functions are as below:

  • Promotes the formation of deciduas and placenta
  • Reduces the contraction of uterus muscles during pregnancy
  • It also suppresses ovulation and menstruation during pregnancy.

3. Androgens: synthesized by ovary. Its functions are as follows:

  • Develop secondary sex characteristics in female.

B. Non-steroid hormone

1. Relaxin: a poly peptide hormone, produced by corpus luteum, placenta and uterine endometrium. Its functions:

  • Loosening of pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joints
  • It softens the cervix during delivery
  • Inhibit uterine contraction during pregnancy

2. Inhibin: produced by the granulosa cells of Graafian follicles. It is also known as folliculostatin. It plays an important role in the inhibition of FSH by negative feedback mechanism.

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