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What are the effects of water pollution on human health and environment?

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Water pollutants affect human beings by causing different kinds of diseases or through contaminated crops, vegetables or flesh of animals.

Some of the effects are mentioned below:

  1. The industrial effluents:
    Contain heavy metals like Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg etc. are toxic to animals and human beings.
  2. Transmission of diseases through polluted water:
    The polluted water is the main source of many infectious diseases. Many viral diseases like infective hepatitis, bacterial diseases like cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Gastroenteritis, etc. are water borne.
  3. Fluoride:
    Containing minerals results in dental Fluorosis and skeletal Fluorosis (knock knee syndrome).
  4. Cadmium:
    Causes growth retardation, damage to kidney, liver and cardiovascular disorder (Itai-Itai disease in Japan)
  5. Mercury:
    It produces Minamata disease [numbness, visual disturbances dysphasia (inability to speak), ataxia (inability to walk properly), mental retardation and convulsions (fits)]. It is a slow poison which enters the body through food change.
  6. Eggs and embryos of certain parasitic worms enter into human system through polluted water.
  7. Drinking water becomes unpleasant due to the smell of various organic chemicals and micro-organisms.
  8. Sewage causes depletion of oxygen affecting aquatic life.
  9. Thermal pollution affects fish population by disturbing reproduction.
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