in Molecular Basis of Inheritance by

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  1. Sudden heritable changes that take place in the genetic material of an organism resulting in the alteration of its phenotype are called mutations.
  2. Mutations cause permanent change in the genotype of an organism.


  1. The physical or chemical agent which causes mutation is called a mutagen.
  2. Physical mutagens→ α, β, λ rays, X-rays, UV rays, Cosmic rays.
  3. Chemical mutagens → Dimethyl sulphate, Ethylene oxide, Hydrazine, Nitrogen mustard, Hydroxylamine.