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Vessel elements are long, cylindrical tube like structure with lignified walls and a wide central lumen. They are dead cells without protoplasm. The cells are arranged in the longitudinal series with partitioned walls perforated. Based on the number of pores present in perforation plate they are known as the simple or multiple perforation plate. In the simple perforation plate there is only one single large pore. In the multiple perforation plate there are number of pores present on the perforation plate which are arranged in several ways. When the pores are arranged in a reticulate manner it is called as the reticulate type. If the pores are arranged in parallel series, it is called as the scalariform type. If the perforations are grouped together then it is known as the foraminate type.

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