in Chemical Coordination and Regulation (Endocrine System) by

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  1. General metabolism: The thyroid hormones increase the metabolic rate of the body by increasing glucose oxidation and energy production called calorigenic effect.
    It maintains the basic metabolic rate (BMR), i.e. the rate of oxygen consumption of the body at rest.
  2. Carbohydrate metabolism: Thyroxine stimulates
    1. Absorption of glucose by the intestine.
    2. Utilization  or consumption of glucose by the cells.
    3. Glycogenolysis in the liver and muscles.
    4. Gluconeogenesis: Production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources.
  3. Protein metabolism: Thyroxine increases protein synthesis.
  4. Lipid metabolism: Thyroxine increases synthesis as well as breakdown of lipids.
  5. Mineral metabolism: Thyroxine increases loss of calcium in the urine.
  6. Heart rate: Thyroxine accelerates heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac-output.
  7. Respiration: Thyroxine increases the rate and depth of respiration.
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