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  1. Sexual reproduction is present only in the fungal partner of the association, and is typical of Ascomycetae.
  2. The male reproductive organ is called spermatogonium and the female is called as carpogonium.
  3. The spermatogonia develop in flask-shaped cavities on the upper surface of the thallus.
  4. A number of hyphae develop from the walls of the cavity. Few of them are sterile and few are fertile.
  5. Spermatia (non-motile male cells) develop continuously from the tips of the fertile branches.
  6. The carpogonium consists of multi-cellular coiled portion, the ascogonium and straight upper portion, the trichogyne.
  7. Fertilization results in changes in the carpogonium.
  8. For the germination of the ascospores produced by the fungal component, they must come in contact with the algal cells or else they will not be able to survive.
  9. The algal partner reproduces by cell division and occasionally by spores.
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