Applications or importance of recombinant DNA are as follows:
1. Specific genes are used to produce insect resistant plants. E.g. Bt Cotton
2. Several genes have improved the quality of seeds. E.g. Golden Rice.
3. Most of the transgenic plants are used to produce certain biochemicals which are not produced by normal plants.
4. Transgenic plants are also used as plant edible vaccines.
5. Transgenic animals are produce for high milk yield, better quality wool, egg laying frequency, etc.
5. Transgenic mice are used as animal models for understanding many human diseases and finding therapeutic drugs.
6. Transgenic fish are used as model for studying the effect of growth hormone transgene on growth rate, for understanding the effect of pollutants or mutagens
7. One of the most and recent application is in gene therapy. Gene therapy is treatment of genetic diseases. It involves the replacement of defective gene by normal gene. E.g. Sickle cell anemia, cancer.
8. Insulin has been successfully produced by recombinant DNA technology using Escherichia coli.
9. Vaccines are produced by recombinant DNA technology.