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The process of transcription stops by termination signals which are of the following two types:

  1. Rho (ρ) dependent termination:
    A specific protein (ρ factor) binds to the growing RNA (not to the RNA polymerase) or weakly to DNA. In the bound state, it acts as ATPase and brings about the termination of transcription and releases the m-RNA.
  2. Rho (ρ) independent termination:
    In this case, the termination is brought about by the formation of hairpins of newly synthesized RNA.
    This occurs due to the presence of palindromic sequences.
    The presence of palindromes in the base sequence of DNA template in the termination region is known.
    As a result of this, the newly synthesized RNA folds to form hairpins (due to complementary base pairing) that cause termination of transcription.
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