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  1. Sewage and waste waters from industries and agriculture are rich in organic and inorganic nutrients, containing phosphorous and nitrogen to some extent.
  2. These nutrients favour excessive grown or “bloom” of algae which results in oxygen depletion.
  3. This phenomenon is called Eutrophication.
  4. Blue-green algae such as Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Microcystis that can tolerate eutrophication grow well and form water blooms.
  5. These water blooms are associated with the production of toxins like lipopolysaccharides that are harmful to the birds and fishes.
  6. These toxins may also cause diseases in humans. E.g. Nausea, gastroenteritis, diarrhea.