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Encephalartos sclavoi reproductive cone

The important characteristics of gymnosperms are:

  1. All gymnosperms are perennials.
  2. Gymnosperms are the seed plants without flowers.
  3. They all are evergreen plants and mostly woody trees.
  4. Leaves can withstand dry conditions; it possesses cuticle and sunken stomata.
  5. Roots of certain members possess mycorrhizae.
  6. The sporophytic generation is very prominent in gymnosperms.
  7. Sporangium is present in the reproductive structure called strobili or cones.
  8. Each cone has the leaf like structure called as the sporophylls which bears the sporangia.
  9. They are heterosporous producing both the microspores and the megaspores.
  10. The pollination is anemophilous; pollination drops oozes out from the micropyle.
  11. After pollination 2-8 archegonia formation takes place at the micropylar end.
  12. Polyembryony is common in the gymnosperms; but only one survives.
  13. Gymnosperms exhibits diplobiontic lifecycle.
  14. It is economically important plant; it provides soft wood, essential oils, medicines etc.
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